Mayordomía Cristiana (Christian Stewardship) (Sabbath Bible Lessons (Spanish Edition) nº 2012)

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Along with the figure of Abraham Seneor we also find that of his son-in-law Mayr Melamed , another of the leaders of the Castilian Jewish community. Both converted to Christianity after the edict of expulsion of Reyes catholicos D. It was a temple with just one nave of whose original decoration today only practically all of an oculus has been conserved as well as the coffered ceiling , the walls and the head.

The bulk of the catedral between the Jewish quarter and the Main square was erected as from on part of the houses of the former Jewish quarter and St. This large house, a symbol of the power of the New Christians in Segovia, accommodates a Jewish quarter Educational Centre which is accessed via the courtyard, organized by means of panels, touchscreens and interesting holographic projection which reproduces in full detail the celebration of the Jewish Shabbat in a virtual synagogue.

All kinds of products related with the Jews and the Segovian Jewish quarter can be bought at the shop. This document is also the first testimony in which it states that the Jews of Segovia were already totally settled and endowed with their own institutions. The consumption of meat and the slaughtering of animals is subject to a whole series of religious stipulations and rituals. The meat eaten by the Jews had to be slaughtered according to a very strict religious ritual. The slaughterhouse, market or scaffold was a space which acquired a certain ritual nature by dint of the liturgy shejitah undertaken there whilst slaughtering animals whose meat was intended for human consumption kosher food.

The norm was for the slaughterhouse to be located in an area on the outskirts of the Jewish quarter to avoid unpleasant odours in the city. The income obtained was used for certain needs of the aljama. The Jewish cemetery is situated outside the walls on the southern slope of the alley of the River Clamores, opposite the stretch of the wall, which runs from the former Jewish abattoir to the Main Synagogue current Church of Corpus Christi and where the Jewish district was said to have been rooted since It is not possible to establish chronological dating with a minimum degree of precision in view of the absence of gravestones which could provide us with information.

When carrying out burials, the Jewish community took advantage of the limestone nature of the rock of this part of Clamores to carry out two types: the first consists of using caves formed by nature, once enlarged and conditioned; the second model corresponds to those of the anthropomorphic type.

The tombs are oriented from east to west and at all of them the skeletons were found intact in supine position and facing east. Some outline the head and shoulders of the corpse whilst in others the form of the cavity is simply trapezoidal.

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Access to the cemetery is unrestricted and it is signposted from the Jewish district and new information signs and new lighting have been placed by Segovia city council. Inside there is an exhibition, some items and objects donated by the Jewish Community of Madrid, which help us to understand the death ritual in Judaism. The cemetery was located outside the walls at a certain distance from the Jewish district.

The chosen site: Must be on virgin soil Must be on a slope Be oriented towards Jerusalem.

Eventos pasados

The Jewish quarter had to have a direct access to the cemetery to prevent the burials from having to pass through the interior of the city. After the monarchs authorised in Barcelona in the reuse of stones from Jewish cemeteries as construction material.

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It is thus not unusual to find fragments of Hebrew inscriptions in several subsequent constructions. We are aware of the existence of more than twenty medieval Jewish cemeteries.

Others are only known of thanks to the documentation or the headstones conserved. The Jewish quarter bakery was also located at Campo synagogue alongside St.

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The rental contract of describes a property to us in great detail. During the Middle Ages the ovens of the cities were of a public nature and could only be built or used under royal license. It was the norm for there to be at least one oven in each Jewish quarter at which bread was baked for daily consumption. From an architectonic perspective, the Jewish oven had to be similar to those raised in other parts of the city : Making bread was not subject to any specific kind of ritual and hence the oven was not subject to any different aspect in its construction. This also means that a Jew could buy bread from a Christian or use a Christian oven to bake bread without transgressing any rules.

During the Passover unleavened bread was baked matzah , without yeast, whose dough bore a seal. As it was a special kind of bread, in Jewish quarters where there was no oven, temporary ones could be built to bake it. At the confluence of the square with Juderia Vieja street , coinciding with the eastern limit of the district, was the first of the seven gates enclosed the Jewish quarter after the decree of , applied in the following year.

The order by the Catholic Monarchs was certainly more successful than the previous Pragmatic by Catherine of Lancaster in whereunder Jews and Moslems were obliged to be concentrated in closed districts: between and when the expulsion of the former was decreed, the population of the district quadrupled, illustrating how dispersed they were throughout the city up to that date. We know that the Segovian Jewish quarter had a hospital annexed to the Campo synagogue , but unfortunately we are unaware of its regulations nor do we have any references to the tasks developed on a daily basis thereat.

We are unaware of the existence of this institution and of the building it occupied owing to the donation that the Catholic Monarchs made thereof to the council of Segovia in September a few months after the Jewish community had abandoned the city. The Jewish quarter was closed off in by decree of the Catholic Monarchs though the placement of seven gates with brick arches. The seven arches which closed off the Jewish quarter , of which there is no trace, were erected in the side streets bordering Christian houses and they were situated at the following points, from East to West: The first was located at the access to Juderia street from Corpus Christi square.

A further three in the blocks demolished in to build the cathedral The fifth at the corner of Nueva Juderia street with Daoiz street The sixth at the corner of Almuzara street with Nueva Juderia street The seventh at the end of Socorro street alongside Casa del Sol former Jewish abattoir.

Quick Overview

The wall, which closed off the whole of the South side of the Jewish quarter , afforded a further two exits: St. The ancient Main synagogue was the religious centre of the Jewish community of Segovia in medieval times. Located between Juderia Vieja street and the wall, it ran parallel to Puerta del Sol street. The current entrance was via Corpus Christi square, crossing a typical Segovian yard which forms part of the Convent of the Order of St. Clare, the owners of the temple.

Due to the absence of documents it is not possible to know the time and conditions in which the Jewish community built the Mayor Synagogue in Segovia. Researchers have analyzed this synagogue architectural and artistically agree in indicating their strong resemblance to the so-called Santa Maria la Blanca in Toledo. The orientation of the Main synagogue in Segovia suggests, according to some authors, that it could have been erected on a previous mosque.

With documentary evidence of its existence going back to , it is known that it served as a Jewish temple until its confiscation en and that nine years later it had already been consecrated to Christian worship.

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Alongside these large horseshoe arches, supported on octagonal pillars which culminate in beautiful chapters decorated by closed circles, the 40 smaller arches of the upper floor and the Mudejar decoration of the coffered ceiling of the current church afford an idea of the dimensions of the old Jewish temple, one of the five synagogues registered in the city, and there could even be anything up to seven. After terrible fire of which reduced the building to its structural lines, at the start of the last decade Segovia city council carried out the restoration of all the plasterwork, stained glass and chapters forming the original ornamentation by means of the original photos of the day of the fire in which were available and the remains conserved of the plasterwork originals.

In , whilst Juan II was still a minor between and , several Segovian Jews were accused of having profaned at their main synagogue a consecrated host. The only account of these events was found half a century after the even in the work written by the Franciscan Friar Alonso de Espina. The narration, which must be considered with caution, in view of the ill will of the author to the Jewish collective, and included in his Fortalitium fidei contra iudeos, sarracenos aliosque christiane fidei inimicos , recounts that a group of Segovian Jews bought from a sacristan a consecrated host to profane it in the synagogue.

After unsuccessfully trying to burn it and fearful of the consequences, these Jews decided to hand over the host to the prior of the Dominican monastery of Santa Cruz de Segovia. The authorities arrested the accused and they were tortured.

Much more than documents.

Those held included Meir Alguadex, the doctor of the deceased Enrique III who in his testimony states that he killed the monarch too. After being declared guilty, the defendants were dragged through the city and dismembered. As the Segovian bishop - so continues the narration of Alonso de Espina — wished to investigate the facts further, the Jews bribed their governor to poison him. Once the conspiracy had been uncovered, the governor and some Jews were executed too and some other parties involved fled the city.

The confluence of Nueva Juderia street with Almuzara street at a corner of Merced square , indicates the northwest end of the aljama where another of the famous arches was situated which established the limits of the Jewish quarter. The second Talmudic school which is said to have been situated in the Almuzara, bordering the Old Synagogue. The community had erected this educational centre on a plot which belonged to Segovia cathedral and this institution was thus paid an annual amount of fifty silver reales.

In the Old Synagogue was expropriated from the Jews and given to the convent of St. Mary of Mercy so that the friars could set up a hospital there.

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The terms of the donation by the King included the fact that the Mercedarians must take on the responsibilities pertaining to the old synagogue. Hence, in the convent renewed the lifelong rental of the old Talmudic school, undertaking to pay a censo every year of forty silver reales, the less than the Jewish community had paid. In this contract the property is described as some houses and a yard with the whole building fecho e edeficado. On the former Rehoyo street , now Infanta Isabel street, there was a Talmudic school midrash of which there are no further references than those appearing in two rental contracts from and in which it is referred to as a boundary with another property.

The start of Juan II street symbolically establishes the western limit of the Jewish district. Another of the arches was erected here which delimited the aljama as from Juderia Vieja street forms part of the urban thoroughfare which comprised the old Mayor de Segovia street which ran parallel to the wall. Although humble, except in the cases of some important dignitaries, the majority of these houses were inhabited by families who were involved in the major commercial success of Segovia in the 13th and 14th centuries with a population of slightly more than fifty families which increased considerably in the 15th century.

Professing even his old religion, and due to the important social status of this character, he was allowed to have access to his house both the Jewish and the Christian area. Santa Ana street , previously known as Solana street which can be accessed via a lean-to from Sol street, is one of the most charming in the Segovian Jewish quarter. It is worth mentioning the suggestive brick building with a wooden beam framework which is on the left, as you leave the passage. Socorro street stretches from the square of the same name to Casa del Sol, the former bulwark of the wall over the Clamores stream.

During the time of Enrique IV , as is borne out by a document dated , the houses of the Jewish quarter which had been set up here became an abattoir.